Static, fatigue and hygroscopic performance of steel-reinforced resins under various temperatures

Angeliki Christoforidou, Ron Verleg, Marko Pavlovic*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Resins are essential structural materials predominantly used in load-bearing connections such as adhesively bonded joints and resin-injected bolted connections. In an effort to improve the latter, a new injection material, Steel Reinforced Resin (SRR), has been developed, consisting of spherical steel particles embedded in a resin. SRR's applicability has been explored in injection bolts used in composite steel-to-concrete floor systems and as an injection material in Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) sandwich web-core panels of highway bridges. While the short-term and creep performance of SRR has been researched, its fatigue behaviour remains unexplored. From joint-level cyclic experiments with SRR, it was observed that joint endurance is dominated by SRR's fatigue performance. There is currently no research on the influence of temperature on SRR's mechanical properties and moisture uptake. This paper fills this gap, by investigating the static and fatigue performance of epoxy, unsaturated polyester polyurethane hybrid (UPE + PU), and vinyl ester based SRRs under ambient and elevated temperatures. Water absorption assessments were conducted on the three resins with and without steel particles to evaluate their durability and corrosion resistance. The results show that temperature significantly impacts tensile stiffness, tensile splitting strength, and fatigue life. Epoxy based SRR endured 20 times more tensile splitting stress cycles to failure compared to the UPE + PU resin based SRR at the same stress range. However, after 200 days of water exposure at maximum temperature, the epoxy resin (with and without steel shot) exhibited a weight increase of 4.0% and 0.50% respectively, suggesting that despite its superior fatigue performance, it may not be suitable for SRR applications in high moisture environments. In contrast, UPE + PU resin and its corresponding SRR displayed substantially lower water absorption.

Original languageEnglish
Article number133079
Number of pages15
JournalConstruction and Building Materials
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Indirect tensile fatigue tests
  • Indirect tensile modulus tests
  • Indirect tensile spitting tests
  • Polymer matrix composite
  • Steel-reinforced resin (SRR)
  • Water absorption


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