Structural response of fire-exposed laminated glass beams under sustained loads; exploratory experiments and FE-Simulations

Christian Louter*, Chiara Bedon, Marcin Kozłowski, Alain Nussbaumer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This paper investigates the structural response of laminated glass beams under combined fire-exposure and sustained in-plane loading. This is done by means of experimental testing and Finite Element (FE) numerical modelling. Firstly, small-scale (1 m long) laminated glass beams are tested under thermal exposure and in-plane loading on a small fire resistance test furnace. From the test results it can be seen that laminated glass beams are able to sustain an imposed in-plane load for a time of 34–51 min before failing according to the limiting rate of deflection as defined in EN 1363–1:2012. It should be noted, however, that the observed failure times are strictly related to the boundary conditions applied in the test, i.e. the magnitude of mechanical loads (in this study a relatively small load of P = 1.15 kN was applied) and the presence of an inherent top zone protection, which may have positively affected the results. Secondly, additional FE thermo-mechanical simulations are performed to further investigate the mechanical response of the laminated glass beams under thermal exposure, with a focus on the effects of the top zone protection and the load magnitude on the performance of the examined laminated glass beams. From the FE study it can be seen that reducing the top zone protection (from 40 mm to 0 mm) results in a reduction in failure time from 45 min to 20 min, while increasing the load with a factor 5 (taking 30 mm top zone protection as a reference) results in a reduction of failure time from 32 to 18 min.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103353
JournalFire Safety Journal
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Beams
  • FE thermo-mechanical simulations
  • Fire
  • Fire resistance experiments
  • Structural glass


Dive into the research topics of 'Structural response of fire-exposed laminated glass beams under sustained loads; exploratory experiments and FE-Simulations'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this