The synthesis of aldehydes from carboxylic acids has long been a challenge in chemistry. In contrast to the harsh chemically driven reduction, enzymes such as carboxylic acid reductases (CARs) are considered appealing biocatalysts for aldehyde production. Although structures of single- and didomains of microbial CARs have been reported, to date no full-length protein structure has been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to obtain structural and functional information regarding the reductase (R) domain of a CAR from the fungus Neurospora crassa (Nc). The NcCAR R-domain revealed activity for N-acetylcysteamine thioester (S-(2-acetamidoethyl) benzothioate), which mimics the phosphopantetheinylacyl-intermediate and can be anticipated as the minimal substrate for thioester reduction by CARs. The determined crystal structure of the NcCAR R-domain reveals a tunnel that putatively harbors the phosphopantetheinylacyl-intermediate, which is in good agreement with docking experiments performed with the minimal substrate. In vitro studies were performed with this highly purified R-domain and NADPH, demonstrating carbonyl reduction activity. The R-domain was able to accept not only a simple aromatic ketone but also benzaldehyde and octanal, which are typically considered to be the final product of carboxylic acid reduction by CAR. Also, the full-length NcCAR reduced aldehydes to primary alcohols. In conclusion, aldehyde overreduction can no longer be attributed exclusively to the host background.
- carboxylic acid reductase
- reductase domain
- short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase
- X-ray crystallography