Study on Soft Start-Up and Shut-Down Methods for Wireless Power Transfer Systems for the Charging of Electric Vehicles

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The increase in popularity of electric vehicles (EVs) and the pursuit of user convenience makes wireless power transfer (WPT) an attractive technology for the charging of batteries. The usage of WPT in e-transportation is not straightforward because the current standardization limits the allowed operating frequency range and magnitude of the irradiated magnetic field. Although, to safeguard the zero voltage switching (ZVS) of the intrinsic inverter switches, their operating frequency needs to be slightly adapted at all time such that the circuit functions in the equivalent inductive region of the passive network. Besides the semiconductors’ soft switching, another control objective is limiting the inverter current to restrain the irradiated magnetic field. The start-up of the WPT system can be particularly challenging because uncertainties on the loading condition and coils’ misalignment can complicate these control objectives. This paper benchmarks three start-up modulation strategies for the H-bridge inverter which aim to reduce the amplitude of the transient currents and to ensure ZVS operation for the S-S compensation and double-sided LCC compensation. In addition two soft shut-down strategies are compared for the S-S compensation. The results show that the symmetrical phase-shift (SPS) control with self-oscillating feedback control, also known as Dual Control gives the best performance for S-S compensation at start-up and shut-down. The combination of frequency and SPS control starting below resonance gives the best results for the soft start-up of the double-sided LCC compensation.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2021 IEEE PELS Workshop on Emerging Technologies
Subtitle of host publicationWireless Power Transfer (WoW)
Place of PublicationDanvers
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-7281-9548-3
ISBN (Print)978-1-7281-6096-2
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Event2021 IEEE PELS Workshop on Emerging Technologies: Wireless Power Transfer (WoW) - Virtual at San Diego, United States
Duration: 1 Jun 20214 Jun 2021


Workshop2021 IEEE PELS Workshop on Emerging Technologies
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityVirtual at San Diego

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Electric vehicle (EV)
  • inductive power transfer (IPT
  • start-up transient
  • wireless power transfer (WPT)
  • inductive power transfer (IPT)


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