Subaqueous dilative slope failure (breaching): Current understanding and future prospects

S.M.S. Alhaddad*, G.H. Keetels, Dick Mastbergen, C. van Rhee, Cheng-Hsien Lee, Eduard Puig Montellà, Julien Chauchat

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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This article presents the current state-of-the-art understanding of underwater dilative slope failure (breaching). Experimental investigations are reviewed, providing critical insights into the underlying physics of breaching and pointing out knowledge gaps, which underscore the need for further research. Besides, field observations at several locations across the globe are outlined, highlighting the hazard of breaching and the need for effective coastal management strategies to mitigate the associated risks. Furthermore, existing methods for analyzing and predicting the slope failure evolution are discussed and reflected upon, including analytical approaches and numerical models, ranging from simplified 1D models to advanced 3D coupled flow-soil approaches. Lastly, open questions are posed and key future directions are identified to enhance our understanding of the breaching failure. Overall, this review paper provides a valuable resource for researchers and decision makers involved in slope stability and flow slide risk assessment.
Original languageEnglish
Article number104708
Number of pages15
JournalAdvances in Water Resources
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Breaching
  • Flow slides
  • Sand erosion
  • Turbidity currents
  • Underwater slope failure
  • Dilatancy
  • Review


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