Support systems for cyclists in automated traffic: A review and future outlook

Siri Hegna Berge*, Joost de Winter, Marjan Hagenzieker

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
95 Downloads (Pure)


Interaction with vulnerable road users in complex urban traffic environments poses a significant challenge for automated vehicles. Solutions to facilitate safe and acceptable interactions in future automated traffic include equipping automated vehicles and vulnerable road users, such as cyclists, with awareness or notification systems, as well as connecting road users to a network of motorised vehicles and infrastructure. This paper provides a synthesis of the current literature on communication technologies, systems, and devices available to cyclists, including technologies present in the environment and on motorised interaction partners such as vehicles, and discusses the outlook for technology-driven solutions in future automated traffic. The objective is to identify, classify, and count the technologies, systems, and devices that have the potential to aid cyclists in traffic with automated vehicles. Additionally, this study aims to extrapolate the potential benefits of these systems and stimulate discourse on the implications of connected vulnerable road users. We analysed and coded 92 support systems using a taxonomy of 13 variables based on the physical, communicational, and functional attributes of the systems. The discussion frames these systems into four categories: cyclist wearables, on-bike devices, vehicle systems, and infrastructural systems, and highlights the implications of the visual, auditory, motion-based, and wireless modes of communication of the devices. The most common system was cyclist wearables (39%), closely followed by on-bike devices (38%) and vehicle systems (33%). Most systems communicated visually (77%). We suggest that interfaces on motorised vehicles accommodate cyclists with visibility all around the car and incorporate two-way communication. The type of system and the effect of communication modality on performance and safety needs further research, preferably in complex and representative test scenarios with automated vehicles. Finally, our study highlights the ethical implications of connected road users and suggests that the future outlook of transport systems may benefit from a more inclusive and less car-centred approach, shifting the burden of safety away from vulnerable road users and promoting more cyclist-friendly solutions.

Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions; Innovative Training Networks (ITN); SHAPE-IT; Grant number 860410

Publication date: 6 May 2023

DOI: 10.1016/j.apergo.2023.104043

Original languageEnglish
Article number104043
Number of pages18
JournalApplied Ergonomics
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Automated vehicles
  • Cyclist
  • Support systems


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