The Challenge of Negotiation in the Game of Diplomacy

Dave de Jonge, Tim Baarslag, Reyhan Aydoğan, Catholijn Jonker, Katsuhide Fujita, Takayuki Ito

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
34 Downloads (Pure)


The game of Diplomacy has been used as a test case for complex automated negotiations for a long time, but to date very few successful negotiation algorithms have been implemented for this game. We have therefore decided to include a Diplomacy tournament within the annual Automated Negotiating Agents Competition (ANAC). In this paper we present the setup and the results of the ANAC 2017 Diplomacy Competition and the ANAC 2018 Diplomacy Challenge. We observe that none of the negotiation algorithms submitted to these two editions have been able to significantly improve the performance over a non-negotiating baseline agent. We analyze these algorithms and discuss why it is so hard to write successful negotiation algorithms for Diplomacy. Finally, we provide experimental evidence that, despite these results, coalition formation and coordination do form essential elements of the game.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAgreement Technologies
Subtitle of host publication6th International Conference, AT 2018, Revised Selected Papers
EditorsMarin Lujak
Place of PublicationCham
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-17294-7
ISBN (Print)978-303017293-0
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Event6th International Conference on Agreement Technologies, AT 2018 - Bergen, Norway
Duration: 6 Dec 20187 Dec 2018

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume11327 LNAI
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference6th International Conference on Agreement Technologies, AT 2018

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project

Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


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