The concept and impact analysis of a flexible mobility on demand system

Bilge Atasoy*, Takuro Ikeda, Xiang Song, Moshe E. Ben-Akiva

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

101 Citations (Scopus)


This paper introduces an innovative transportation concept called Flexible Mobility on Demand (FMOD), which provides personalized services to passengers. FMOD is a demand responsive system in which a list of travel options is provided in real-time to each passenger request. The system provides passengers with flexibility to choose from a menu that is optimized in an assortment optimization framework. For operators, there is flexibility in terms of vehicle allocation to different service types: taxi, shared-taxi and mini-bus. The allocation of the available fleet to these three services is carried out dynamically so that vehicles can change roles during the day. The FMOD system is built based on a choice model and consumer surplus is taken into account in order to improve passenger satisfaction. Furthermore, profits of the operators are expected to increase since the system adapts to changing demand patterns. In this paper, we introduce the concept of FMOD and present preliminary simulation results. It is shown that the dynamic allocation of the vehicles to different services provides significant benefits over static allocation. Furthermore, it is observed that the trade-off between consumer surplus and operator's profit is critical. The optimization model is adapted in order to take into account this trade-off by controlling the level of passenger satisfaction. It is shown that with such control mechanisms FMOD provides improved results in terms of both profit and consumer surplus.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)373-392
JournalTransportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Demand responsive transit
  • Flexible transportation services
  • Mobility on demand
  • Personalized transportation services
  • Shared-ride
  • Shared-taxi


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