The Development of an Energy Efficient Electric Mitad for Baking Injeras in Ethiopia

Robin Jones, Jan-Carel Diehl, Leon Simons, Martin Verwaal

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
700 Downloads (Pure)


Preparation of Injera, the cultural staple bread food
item in Ethiopia, is known for its intensive energy consuming
cooking. Baking this food item in the traditional three stone stoves,
with an efficiency of 5-15%, consumes huge amounts of firewood
and causes consequent problems like deforestation, global warming
and household air pollution. Electrical injera stoves (mitads) are a
sound alternative in Ethiopia because of the relatively wide
availability of electricity (hydropower). However, these electrical
Mitad have designs dating back to the 1960’s and are highly
inefficient as well and are overloading the electricity grid.
Consequently, a research and design project called ‘Magic Mitad’
was initiated to develop an energy-efficient electric injera mitad.
Starting with the introduction of a new type of fuel-efficient baking
plate a range of research and design experiments were initiated to
further optimize the energy-efficiency as well as the baking quality
of the Magic Mitad. In the first experiment the ‘start-up energy’ of
different baking plates was tested in order to identify and select the
most energy efficient one. During the next experiment, the chosen
type of baking plate was used for baking injeras to study the heat
distribution. A uniform heat distribution is key to produce high
quality injeras. From the result obtained it was concluded that a
different type of heating element was needed. Ten types of
alternative heating elements were selected of which four were
tested in a lab-setting. Ribbon wire heating element was selected,
and optimized in its lay-out. Finally, the prototypes were tested in
Addis Ababa on quality performance and energy-efficiency
compared to electrical clay mitads. The outcomes were successful
in the sense of quality and increased efficiency by 30%.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 25th Domestic Use of Energy Conference
Subtitle of host publicationTowards Sustainable Energy Solutions for the Developing World
Place of PublicationCape Town, SA
PublisherCape Peninsula University of Technology
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)978-0-9946759-2-7
ISBN (Print)978-1-5090-6433-5
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Event25th Domestic Use of Energy Conference: Towards Sustainable Energy Solutions for the Developing World - Cape Town, South Africa
Duration: 3 Apr 20175 Apr 2017
Conference number: 25


Conference25th Domestic Use of Energy Conference
Abbreviated titleDUE 2017
CountrySouth Africa
CityCape Town


  • Clean Cooking
  • Ethiopia
  • Heat Distribution
  • Energy Efficiency
  • Injera
  • Kitchen Environment

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'The Development of an Energy Efficient Electric Mitad for Baking Injeras in Ethiopia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this