The dynamic response of the bicycle rider’s body to vertical, fore-and-aft, and lateral perturbations

George Dialynas, Jelle de Haan, Alfred C. Schouten, Riender Happee, Arend L. Schwab

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
78 Downloads (Pure)


The objective of this study was to identify the dynamic response of the bicycle rider’s body during translational perturbations, in an effort to improve two-wheeler safety and comfort. A bicycle mock-up was equipped with sensors measuring three-dimensional seat and trunk accelerations and rider’s force responses at the seat, handlebars, and footpegs. The bicycle mock-up was driven by a hexapod motion platform that generated random noise perturbations in the range of 0–10 Hz. Twenty-four healthy male adults participated in this study. Responses are represented as frequency response functions capturing three-dimensional force interactions of the rider’s body at the seat, handlebars and footpegs in terms of apparent mass, and rider’s trunk motion (one-dimensional) as function of seat motion as seat-to-sternum transmissibility. Results showed that the vertical and longitudinal apparent mass for most of the bicycle interfaces followed the resonance of the seat-to-sternum transmissibility. A twice as high magnitude was observed at the resonance, although a more heavily damped system was apparent in the seat-to-sternum transmissibility. Resonant frequencies were considerably higher in the vertical direction compared to the longitudinal direction. Different dynamics were observed for the lateral measurements, where all magnitudes decreased after the base frequency, and no resonance was observed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1944-1957
JournalProceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • apparent mass
  • Bicycle dynamics
  • rider identification
  • transmissibility
  • whole-body vibration


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