The Effect of Groove Shape on Molten Metal Flow Behaviour in Gas Metal Arc Welding

Amin Ebrahimi*, A. Babu, C.R. Kleijn, M.J.M. Hermans, I.M. Richardson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
12 Downloads (Pure)


One of the challenges for development, qualification and optimisation of arc welding processes lies in characterising the complex melt-pool behaviour which exhibits highly non-linear responses to variations of process parameters. The present work presents a computational model to describe the melt-pool behaviour in root-pass gas metal arc welding (GMAW). Three-dimensional numerical simulations have been performed using an enhanced physics-based computational model to unravel the effect of groove shape on complex unsteady heat and fluid flow in GMAW. The influence of surface deformations on the magnitude and distribution of the heat input and the forces applied to the molten material were taken into account. Utilising this model, the complex thermal and fluid flow fields in melt pools were visualised and described for different groove shapes. Additionally, experiments were performed to validate the numerical predictions and the robustness of the present computational model is demonstrated. The model can be used to explore the physical effects of governing fluid flow and melt-pool stability during gas metal arc root welding.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7444
Number of pages17
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • gas metal arc welding (GMAW)
  • melt-pool behaviour
  • joint shape design
  • computational modelling


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