The Effect of Material Fresh Properties and Process Parameters on Buildability and Interlayer Adhesion of 3D Printed Concrete

Biranchi Panda, Nisar Ahamed Noor Mohamed, Suvash Chandra Paul, GVP Bhagath Singh, Ming Jen Tan, Branko Šavija

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

137 Citations (Scopus)
119 Downloads (Pure)


The advent of digital concrete fabrication calls for advancing our understanding of the interaction of 3D printing with material rheology and print parameters, in addition to developing new measurement and control techniques. Thixotropy is the main challenge associated with printable material, which offers high yield strength and low viscosity. The higher the thixotropy, the better the shape stability and the higher buildability. However, exceeding a minimum value of thixotropy can cause high extrusion pressure and poor interface bond strength if the printing parameters are not optimized to the part design. This paper aims to investigate the effects of both material and process parameters on the buildability and inter-layer adhesion properties of 3D printed cementitious materials, produced with different thixotropy and print head standoff distances. Nano particles are used to increase the thixotropy and, in this context, a lower standoff distance is found to be useful for improving the bond strength. The low viscosity “control” sample is unaffected by the variation in standoff distances, which is attributed to its flowability and low yield stress characteristics that lead to strong interfacial bonding. This is supported by our microscopic observations.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2149
Number of pages12
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • 3D concrete printing
  • Bond strength
  • Process parameters
  • Thixotropy

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