The effect of price-optimized charging on electric vehicle fleet emissions

Rishabh Ghotge, Marnix Paanakker, Ad Van Wijk, Brecht Baeten, Zofia Lukszo

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

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Aggregation of sufficiently large electric vehicle (EV) fleets and control over their charging schedules enables aggregators to utilise the flexibility of EV charging in the Day Ahead Market. Optimising the charge scheduling of such fleets enables time-shifting of electricity demand to hours when electricity is cheaper, reducing the electricity cost for charging the entire fleet. Time shifting with scheduled charging is expected to influence the average carbon intensity of the energy used by these vehicles. This work aims to quantify the change in the carbon intensity of energy used by smart charged vehicles. It uses real data collected from over 55, 000 home charging sessions from 1031 chargepoints in the Netherlands in 2018. A simulation was made with a commercial smart charging algorithm to create a scheduled charging profile ex post from the historic EV charging dataset. The simulation resulted in an average price reduction of electricity for the fleet of about 25% relative to unscheduled charging of the same fleet over the same period. The time dependent average carbon intensity of electricity consumed in the Netherlands was used to calculate the mean carbon intensity of the electricity used to charge the fleet over the period in the scheduled and unscheduled charging cases. The results revealed a small decrease in carbon intensity by 1.2%. Analysis reveals that price optimisation can have large effects on the mean carbon intensity of individual sessions in the Dutch grid, but the net effect is averaged out over a large number of sessions and over the year.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of 2020 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe, ISGT-Europe 2020
Place of PublicationPiscataway, NJ, USA
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-7281-7100-5
ISBN (Print)978-1-7281-7101-2
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Event10th IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe, ISGT-Europe 2020 - Virtual/online event due to COVID-19, Delft, Netherlands
Duration: 26 Oct 202028 Oct 2020
Conference number: 10


Conference10th IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe, ISGT-Europe 2020
Abbreviated titleISGT-Europe 2020
OtherVirtual/online event due to COVID-19
Internet address

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project

Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Electric vehicle
  • Fleet emissions
  • Scheduling
  • Well-to-tank


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