As well as known contaminants, surface waters also contain an unknown variety of chemical and microbial contaminants which can pose a risk to humans if surface water is used for the production of drinking water. To protect human health proactively, and in a cost-efficient way, water authorities and drinking water companies need early warning systems. This study aimed to (1) assess the effectiveness of screening the scientific literature to direct sampling campaigns for early warning purposes, and (2) detect new aquatic contaminants of concern to public health in the Netherlands. By screening the scientific literature, six example contaminants (3 chemical and 3 microbial) were selected as potential aquatic contaminants of concern to the quality of Dutch drinking water. Stakeholders from the Dutch water sector and various information sources were consulted to identify the potential sources of these contaminants. Based on these potential contamination sources, two sampling sequences were set up from contamination sources (municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants), via surface water used for the production of drinking water to treated drinking water. The chemical contaminants, mycophenolic acid, tetrabutylphosphonium compounds and Hexafluoropropylene Oxide Trimer Acid, were detected in low concentrations and were thus not expected to pose a risk to Dutch drinking water. Colistin resistant Escherichia coli was detected for the first time in Dutch wastewater not influenced by hospital wastewater, indicating circulation of bacteria resistant to this last-resort antibiotic in the open Dutch population. Four out of six contaminants were thus detected in surface or wastewater samples, which showed that screening the scientific literature to direct sampling campaigns for both microbial and chemical contaminants is effective for early warning purposes.
Bibliographical noteGreen Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.
- Early warning