The expectations of and covariances between carbon footprints

João F. D. Rodrigues, Rong Yuan, Hai Xiang Lin

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Abstract

Carbon footprints and other environmentally extended input–output indicators are obtained as aggregations of emissions embodied in supply chains (EESCs), which express the emissions occurring in a specific production activity to satisfy a given volume of final demand. Here we derive theoretical approximations of the expectations of and covariances between EESCs, as a function of the expectations of and covariances between source data (technical coefficients, emission coefficients and final demand volumes) through a Taylor expansion. We report an empirical test of those approximations, using a sample of 5 global multi-regional input–output models in the year 2007, of which we extract 22 single-region input–output systems with 17 sectors. We find that approximations of multipliers perform better than those of EESC, and approximations of expectations perform better than those of covariances.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)192-201
Number of pages10
JournalEconomic Systems Research
Volume32 (2020)
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • covariance
  • expectation
  • Input–output analysis
  • multiplier
  • Taylor expansion

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