The experienced mode choice set and its determinants: Commuting trips in the Netherlands

Danique Ton*, Shlomo Bekhor, Oded Cats, Dorine C. Duives, Sascha Hoogendoorn-Lanser, Serge P. Hoogendoorn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)
76 Downloads (Pure)


Active modes take up an increasingly important place on the global policy-making agenda. In the Netherlands, a country that is well-known for its high shares of walking and cycling, the government aims at achieving a modal shift among 200,000 commuting car drivers towards using the bicycle. To this end, policy measures need to be introduced. When the aim is to achieve a modal switch over an enduring period of time, it is more relevant to know the likelihood of including or excluding a mode in the mode choice set, compared to choosing a mode for a single trip. Therefore, we investigate the formation of the experienced choice set (set of modes used over a long period of time), where the aim is to identify determinants that influence the inclusion or exclusion of a mode in this set. We estimate discrete choice models, based on survey data from the Netherlands Mobility Panel (MPN) and a complementary survey, where individuals were asked to report the frequency of using certain modes of transport for commuting trips over the course of half a year. This study shows that the experienced choice set for commuting is unimodal for the majority of the individuals, and remains constant over time for most individuals. Reimbursement by the employer for using a certain mode is the most important determinant influencing the experienced choice set, followed by ownership characteristics and urban density. We show that the mode choice set formation depends on more determinants than previously assumed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)744-758
Number of pages15
JournalTransportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Commute trips
  • Discrete choice analysis
  • Experienced choice set
  • Mode choice set
  • Mode use


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