The HΓ-VNA, an Interferometric Approach for the Accurate Measurement of Extreme Impedances

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


In this contribution, we present the performances of an IQ mixer-based RF-interferometer module, called the HΓ-VNA, designed to be used as an add-on to VNAs to improve the measurement sensitivity and accuracy of DUTs presenting extreme impedances (|Γ|>0.8). The calibration procedure used to obtain accuracy improvement is presented, and allows to set both reference and system impedance to any selected one. The procedure is benchmarked by comparing it to a conventional 50 Ω short-open-load calibration performed on a 50-Ohm VNA. For this purpose, a custom on-wafer calibration kit has been realized, using a fused silica substrate, featuring calibration loads with very high impedances (between 3.5 kΩ and 7 kΩ). Experimental results show accuracy improvements when applying the proposed calibration technique to the measurement of high impedance resistors, for frequencies below 4 GHz.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2019 93rd ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference
Subtitle of host publicationMeasurement Challenges for the Upcoming RF and mm-Wave Communications and Sensing Systems, ARFTG 2019
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-7281-0506-2
ISBN (Print)978-1-7281-0507-9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2019
Event93rd ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference, ARFTG 2019 - Boston, United States
Duration: 7 Jun 20197 Jun 2019


Conference93rd ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference, ARFTG 2019
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • extreme impedance
  • high gamma
  • interferometer
  • IQ mixer
  • vector network analyzer


Dive into the research topics of 'The HΓ-VNA, an Interferometric Approach for the Accurate Measurement of Extreme Impedances'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this