The Haptic Fidelity Framework: A Qualitative Overview and Categorization of Cutaneous-based Haptic Technologies Through Fidelity

Stefan Josef Breitschaft, Stefan Heijboer, Daniel Shor, Erik Tempelman, Peter Vink, Claus Christian Carbon

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1 Citation (Scopus)
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After decades of research and development, haptic feedback is increasingly appearing in consumer products. While the prevalence of haptic feedback is increasing, the integration rarely offers increased fidelity to previous generations. We argue this is because of the tremendous complexity of successful haptic design engineering, but critically, also because of information saturation. With novel cutaneous feedback technologies and companies emerging almost daily, the multi-disciplinary nature of haptics and the marketing-driven terminology used to stand out in a crowded market makes it challenging to select and integrate actuators correctly. To manage this complexity and facilitate the interdisciplinary exchange of user requirements and material affordances, we introduce a novel classification criterion for haptic actuators focused on the bandwidth and fidelity of potential effects. We introduce vocabulary for describing the precise experience the actuators and corresponding systems should deliver. Lastly, we summarize currently commercially available cutaneous-based haptic technology. In the nearby future, the same criterion and language can also prove valuable for steering technology development of new and improved actuators and enabling novice and experienced practitioners to understand and integrate cutaneous feedback in their products.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)232-245
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Haptics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • -Haptic Feedback
  • Actuators
  • Haptic Experience0 F
  • Haptic interfaces
  • Haptic Technology
  • Interaction Design
  • Microprogramming
  • Psychology
  • Skin
  • Software
  • Surface Haptics
  • Vibrations
  • Vibrotactile Feedback


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