The Impact of Walking Speed Heterogeneity on the Pedestrian Fundamental Diagram

Dorine C. Duives*, Martijn Sparnaaij, Serge P. Hoogendoorn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review


Most works featuring the capacity of pedestrian infrastructures have focussed on unidirectional movement base cases, studied relatively low-density situations and instructed their participants to behave ‘normal’. However, during large crowd movements at train stations and events often far higher densities are encountered, the flow situations are more complex, and pedestrians do not always behave ‘normal’. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of heterogeneity in walking speed and the flow situation on the global and local dynamics of the crowd. A large pedestrian experiment was performed by Delft University of Technology, coined CrowdLimits, to derive the answer to this question. A preliminary analysis of the participants’ movements illustrates that especially the introduction of differences in walking speed and distribution between flows influence the shape fundamental diagram.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTraffic and Granular Flow 2019
EditorsIker Zuriguel, Angel Garcimartín, Raúl Cruz Hidalgo
Number of pages7
ISBN (Print)9783030559724
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Event13th Conference on Traffic and Granular Flow, TGF 2019 - Pamplona, Spain
Duration: 2 Jul 20195 Jul 2019

Publication series

NameSpringer Proceedings in Physics
ISSN (Print)0930-8989
ISSN (Electronic)1867-4941


Conference13th Conference on Traffic and Granular Flow, TGF 2019


  • Bidirectional
  • Crossing
  • Crowd movement dynamics
  • Pedestrian fundamental diagram
  • Time pressure


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