The influence of surfactants on thermocapillary flow instabilities in low Prandtl melting pools

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Abstract

Flows in low Prandtl number liquid pools are relevant for various technical applications and have so far only been investigated for the case of pure fluids, i.e., with a constant, negative surface tension temperature coefficient ∂γ/γT. Real-world fluids containing surfactants have a temperature dependent ∂γ/γT > 0, which may change sign to ∂γ/∂T <0 at a critical temperature Tc. Where thermocapillary forces are the main driving force, this can have a tremendous effect on the resulting flow patterns and the associated heat transfer. Here we investigate the stability of such flows for five Marangoni numbers in the range of 2.1 × 106 ≤ Ma ≤ 3.4 × 107 using dynamic large eddy simulations, which we validate against a high resolution direct numerical simulation. We find that the five cases span all flow regimes, i.e., stable laminar flow at Ma ≤ 2.1 × 106, transitional flow with rotational instabilities at Ma = 2.8 × 106 and Ma = 4.6 × 106, and turbulent flow at Ma = 1.8 × 107 and Ma = 3.4 × 107.

Original languageEnglish
Article number062106
JournalPhysics of Fluids
Volume28
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 Jun 2016

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