The interaction of parallel and inclined planar rarefied sonic plumes—From free molecular to continuum regime

J. Elin Vesper*, Theo J.M. Broeders, Joëlle Batenburg, Daniel E.A. van Odyck, Chris R. Kleijn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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The interaction between rarefied vapor plumes can cause shocks and consequently distinct peaks in mass flux which produce undesirable non-uniformities. To evaluate the impact of shock formation, we study pairs of interacting planar plumes, varying the degree of rarefaction and general geometric parameters, namely, the nozzle-separation-distance and the mutual plume inclination. To consider the extremes of rarefaction, we give the analytic solution for free molecular flow and simulate the inviscid continuum solution using an approximate Riemann solver. In the transitional flow regime, direct simulation Monte Carlo is applied. To detect the shock location, we make use of the Method of Characteristics. We conclude that, although the rarefied flow regime physically lies in between the free molecular and the inviscid continuum flow regimes, the peak value of mass flux in the transitional flow regime exceeds both the one of free molecular flows and the one of inviscid continuum flows (the latter by Rarefied flow exhibits a broader, but weaker secondary expansion after the shock than continuum flow. For planar jet interaction, the occurrence of the shock is rather insensitive to nozzle separation distance. Despite the intuitive expectation that inclining the plumes away from each other would lead to shock reduction and thus give a more uniform mass flux, the opposite is the case: Inclining the plumes toward each other leads to a stronger shock, but also to a stronger expansion, thus producing a more uniform mass flux with less stray mass fluxes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number086103
Number of pages24
JournalPhysics of Fluids
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2021


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