The JOREK non-linear extended MHD code and applications to large-scale instabilities and their control in magnetically confined fusion plasmas

M. Hoelzl*, G. T.A. Huijsmans, S. J.P. Pamela, M. Bécoulet, E. Nardon, J. W. Haverkort, D. Hu, J. A. Morales, M. Verbeek, More Authors

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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JOREK is a massively parallel fully implicit non-linear extended magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) code for realistic tokamak X-point plasmas. It has become a widely used versatile simulation code for studying large-scale plasma instabilities and their control and is continuously developed in an international community with strong involvements in the European fusion research programme and ITER organization. This article gives a comprehensive overview of the physics models implemented, numerical methods applied for solving the equations and physics studies performed with the code. A dedicated section highlights some of the verification work done for the code. A hierarchy of different physics models is available including a free boundary and resistive wall extension and hybrid kinetic-fluid models. The code allows for flux-surface aligned iso-parametric finite element grids in single and double X-point plasmas which can be extended to the true physical walls and uses a robust fully implicit time stepping. Particular focus is laid on plasma edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) physics as well as disruption related phenomena. Among the key results obtained with JOREK regarding plasma edge and SOL, are deep insights into the dynamics of edge localized modes (ELMs), ELM cycles, and ELM control by resonant magnetic perturbations, pellet injection, as well as by vertical magnetic kicks. Also ELM free regimes, detachment physics, the generation and transport of impurities during an ELM, and electrostatic turbulence in the pedestal region are investigated. Regarding disruptions, the focus is on the dynamics of the thermal quench (TQ) and current quench triggered by massive gas injection and shattered pellet injection, runaway electron (RE) dynamics as well as the RE interaction with MHD modes, and vertical displacement events. Also the seeding and suppression of tearing modes (TMs), the dynamics of naturally occurring TQs triggered by locked modes, and radiative collapses are being studied.

Original languageEnglish
Article number065001
Number of pages71
JournalNuclear Fusion
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • disruption mitigation
  • disruptions
  • edge localized modes
  • ELM control
  • MHD simulations
  • tokamak
  • vertical displacement events


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