High performance work systems (HPWS) have been shown to associate with performance at diverse levels. In this article, we study the effects of employee age on the relationship between HPWS and employee performance. We use a role-based measurement of employee performance, which introduces five roles that an employee can hold within an organization, namely the roles of Job holder, Career seeker, Innovator, Team member, and Organization member. Integrating social exchange theory with lifespan theories (i.e., future time perspective and socio-emotional selectivity theory), we propose that HPWS have different associations with job roles for older employees. Using 342 pairs of supervisors and their subordinates, that are nested in 111 service organizations, multilevel analyses show that HPWS positively associate with employee performance in the Organization member role. Moreover, the relationships between HPWS and performance in the Job holder and the Career seeker roles are weaker for older than for younger employees. The results are discussed in the light of the challenges they pose for the management of an aging workforce.