The Origin of Patterns

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
31 Downloads (Pure)


The question is discussed from where the patterns arise that are recognized in the world. Are they elements of the outside world, or do they originate from the concepts that live in the mind of the observer? It is argued that they are created during observation, due to the knowledge on which the observation ability is based. For an experienced observer this may result in a direct recognition of an object or phenomenon without any reasoning. Afterwards and using conscious effort he may be able to supply features or arguments that he might have used for his recognition. The discussion is phrased in the philosophical debate between monism, in which the observer is an element of the observed world, and dualism, in which these two are fully separated. Direct recognition can be understood from a monistic point of view. After the definition of features and the formulation of a reasoning, dualism may arise. An artificial pattern recognition system based on these specifications thereby creates a clear dualistic situation. It fully separates the two worlds by physical sensors and mechanical reasoning. This dualistic position can be solved by a responsible integration of artificially intelligent systems in human controlled applications. A set of simple experiments based on the classification of histopathological slides is presented to illustrate the discussion.
Original languageEnglish
Article number747195
Number of pages16
JournalFrontiers in Computer Science
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • concepts
  • dualism
  • histopathology
  • knowledge
  • monism
  • patterns
  • recognition
  • universals


Dive into the research topics of 'The Origin of Patterns'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this