The potential of green ammonia production to reduce renewable power curtailment and encourage the energy transition in China

Hanxin Zhao*, Linda M. Kamp, Zofia Lukszo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
233 Downloads (Pure)


The pursuing of inter-regional power transmission to address renewable power curtailment in China has resulted in disappointing gains. This paper evaluates the case of local green ammonia production to address this issue. An improved optimization-based simulation model is applied to simulate lifetime green manufacturing, and the impacts of main institutional incentives and oxygen synergy on investment are analysed. Levelized cost of ammonia is estimated at around 820 USD/t, which is about twice the present price. The operating rate, ammonia price, the electrical efficiency of electrolysers and the electricity price are found to be the key factors in green ammonia investment. Carbon pricing and value-added tax exemption exert obvious influences on the energy transition in China. A subsidy of approximately 450 USD/t will be required according to the present price; however, this can be reduced by 100 USD/t through oxygen synergy. Compared to inter-regional power transmission, green ammonia production shows both economic and environmental advantages. Therefore, we propose an appropriate combination of both options to address renewable power curtailment and the integration of oxygen manufacturing into hydrogen production. We consider the findings and policy implications will contribute to addressing renewable power curtailment and boosting the hydrogen economy in China.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)18935-18954
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Issue number44
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • China
  • Green ammonia
  • Green hydrogen
  • Optimization-based simulation
  • Renewable power curtailment

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