The role of industrial actors in the circular economy for critical raw materials: a framework with case studies across a range of industries

Alexander Cimprich, Dieuwertje Schrijvers, Anthony Y. Ku, Christian Hagelüken, Patrice Christmann, Roderick Eggert, Atsufumi Hirohata, David Peck, Alessandra Hool*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)
62 Downloads (Pure)


In this article, we explore concrete examples of circularity strategies for critical raw materials (CRMs) in commercial settings. We propose a company-level framework for systematically evaluating circularity strategies (e.g., material recycling, product reuse, and product or component lifetime extension) in specific applications of CRMs from the perspectives of specific industrial actors. This framework is applied in qualitative analyses—informed by relevant literature and expert consultation—of five case studies across a range of industries: (1) rhenium in high-pressure turbine components, (2) platinum group metals in industrial catalysts for chemical processing and oil refining, (3) rare earth permanent magnets in computer hard disk drives, (4) various CRMs in consumer electronics, and (5) helium in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines. Drawing from these case studies, three broader observations can be made about company circularity strategies for CRMs. Firstly, there are multiple, partly competing motivations that influence the adoption of circularity strategies, including cost savings, supply security, and external stakeholder pressure. Secondly, business models and value-chain structure play a major role in the implementation of circularity strategies; business-to-business models appear to be more conducive to circularity than business-to-consumer models. Finally, it is important to distinguish between closed-loop circularity, in which material flows are contained within the “focal” actor’s system boundary, and open-loop circularity, in which material flows cross the system boundary, as the latter has limited potential for mitigating material criticality from the perspective of the focal actor.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)301-319
Number of pages19
JournalMineral Economics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Circular business models
  • Circularity strategies
  • Critical raw materials
  • Industrial actors
  • Material criticality
  • Supply security


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