The three-dimensional shape symmetry of the lunate and its implications

Nazlı Tümer*, Olivier Hiemstra, Yvonne Schreurs, Gerald A. Kraan, Johan van der Stok, Amir A. Zadpoor

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


We studied the three-dimensional (3-D) shape variations and symmetry of the lunate to evaluate whether a contralateral shape-based approach to design patient-specific implants for treatment of Kienböck’s disease is accurate. A 3-D statistical shape model of the lunate was built using the computed tomography scans of 54 lunate pairs and shape symmetry was evaluated based on an intraclass correlation analysis. The lunate shape was not bilaterally symmetrical in (1) the angle scaphoid surface – radius-ulna surface, (2) the dorsal side and the length of the side adjacent to the triquetrum, (3) the orientation of the volar surface, (4) the width of the side adjacent to the scaphoid, (5) the skewness in the coronal plane and (6) the curvature of bone articulating with the hamate and capitate. These findings suggest that using the contralateral lunate to design patient-specific lunate implants may not be as accurate as it is intended.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)587-593
JournalJournal of Hand Surgery: European Volume
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Avascular necrosis
  • implant
  • Kienböck
  • lunate
  • shape symmetry
  • statistical shape model


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