The Tynode: A new vacuum electron multiplier

Harry van der Graaf, Hassan Akhtar, Neil Budko, Hong Wah Chan, Cornelis W. Hagen, Conny C.T. Hansson, Gert Nützel, Sergio D. Pinto, Violeta Prodanović, Behrouz Raftari, Pasqualina M. Sarro, John Sinsheimer, John Smedley, Shuxia Tao, Anne M.M.G. Theulings, Kees Vuik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


By placing, in vacuum, a stack of transmission dynodes (tynodes) on top of a CMOS pixel chip, a single free electron detector could be made with outstanding performance in terms of spatial and time resolution. The essential object is the tynode: an ultra thin membrane, which emits, at the impact of an energetic electron on one side, a multiple of electrons at the other side. The electron yields of tynodes have been calculated by means of GEANT-4 Monte Carlo simulations, applying special low-energy extensions. The results are in line with another simulation based on a continuous charge-diffusion model. By means of Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) technology, tynodes and test samples have been realized. The secondary electron yield of several samples has been measured in three different setups. Finally, several possibilities to improve the yield are presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)148-161
Number of pages14
JournalNuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • (Negative) Electron affinity
  • Cesiation
  • Dynode
  • Imaging
  • Photomultiplier
  • Pixel
  • Planacon
  • Secondary electron yield
  • Surface termination
  • Transmission dynode
  • Trynode
  • Tynode
  • Work function


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