The variation in 3D face shapes of dutch children for mask design

Lyè Goto*, Wonsup Lee, Toon Huysmans, Johan F.M. Molenbroek, Richard H.M. Goossens

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
89 Downloads (Pure)


The use of 3D anthropometric data of children’s heads and faces has great potential in the development of protective gear and medical products that need to provide a close fit in order to function well. Given the lack of detailed data of this kind, the aim of this study is to map the size and shape variation of Dutch children’s heads and faces and investigate possible implications for the design of a ventilation mask. In this study, a dataset of heads and faces of 303 Dutch children aged six months to seven years consisting of traditional measurements and 3D scans were analysed. A principal component analysis (PCA) of facial measurements was performed to map the variation of the children’s face shapes. The first principal component describes the overall size, whilst the second principal component captures the more width related variation of the face. After establishing a homology between the 3D scanned face shapes, a second principal component analysis was done on the point coordinates, revealing the most prominent variations in 3D shape within the sample.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6843
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • 3D anthropometry
  • Dutch children
  • Face mask design
  • Head and face
  • Principal component analysis
  • Shape variation
  • Ventilation mask


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