Thermal-Aware Synthesis of 5G Base Station Antenna Arrays: An Overview and a Sparsity-Based Approach

Yanki Aslan, Jan Puskely, J. H. J. Janssen, Marcel Geurts, Antoine Roederer, Alexander Yarovoy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

65 Citations (Scopus)
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Heat removal capabilities and radiation performances of several sparse antenna array topologies are studied for cooling enhancement in 5G millimeter-wave base station antennas. Both electromagnetic and thermal aspects are jointly considered for the first time in array layout optimization and a novel connection between layout sparsity and thermal management is presented. Two types of active electronically scanned arrays (AESA’s), based on the traditional and planar approaches, are examined. Thermal management in AESA’s is discussed, with a focus on cooling challenges at millimeter waves. Being relatively low-cost and low-profile while supporting flexible beamforming, passively cooled planar AESA’s with fanless CPU coolers are proposed, for the first time, to be used in 5G base stations. Additional cooling for such arrays is achieved by increasing the inter-element distances in the layout. Linear irregular arrays, spiral arrays, thinned arrays, circular ring arrays and heat sink antenna arrays are revisited with a critical discussion on their electromagnetic and thermal performance. The results are compared with regular and square layouts that are used as benchmarks throughout the paper.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)58868-58882
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Access
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Bibliographical note



  • Antenna synthesis
  • base station antennas
  • fifth generation (5G)
  • millimeter-wave communications
  • passive cooling
  • sparse arrays


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