Thermal depolarization and electromechanical hardening in Zn2+-doped Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3-BaTiO3

Lalitha Kodumudi Venkataraman, Tingting Zhu, Monica Pinto Salazar, Kathrin Hofmann, Aamir Iqbal Waidha, J. C. Jaud, Pedro B. Groszewicz, Jürgen Rödel

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Na 1/2Bi 1/2TiO 3-based materials have been earmarked for one of the first large-volume applications of lead-free piezoceramics in high-power ultrasonics. Zn 2+-doping is demonstrated as a viable route to enhance the thermal depolarization temperature and electromechanically harden (1-y)Na 1/2Bi 1/2TiO 3-yBaTiO 3 (NBT100yBT) with a maximum achievable operating temperature of 150 °C and mechanical quality factor of 627 for 1 mole % Zn 2+-doped NBT6BT. Although quenching from sintering temperatures has been recently touted to enhance T F-R, with quenching the doped compositions featuring an additional increase in T F-R by 17 °C, it exhibits negligible effect on the electromechanical properties. The effect is rationalized considering the missing influence on conductivity and therefore, negligible changes in the defect chemistry upon quenching. High-resolution diffraction indicates that Zn 2+-doped samples favor the tetragonal phase with enhanced lattice distortion, further corroborated by 23Na Nuclear Magnetic Resonance investigations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2201-2212
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Na Bi TiO
  • Zn -doping
  • electromechanical hardening
  • quenching
  • thermal depolarization


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