TiEMPO: Open-source time-dependent end-To-end model for simulating ground-based submillimeter astronomical observations

Esmee Huijten, Yannick Roelvink, Stefanie A. Brackenhoff, Stan Zaalberg, Anne Kee Doing, Jochem J.A. Baselmans, Kenichi Karatsu, Alejandro Pascual Laguna, Maarten Van Hoven, Akira Endo*, More Authors

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
18 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The next technological breakthrough in millimeter–submillimeter astronomy is three-dimensional imaging spectrometry with wide instantaneous spectral bandwidths and wide fields of view. The total optimization of the focal-plane instrument, the telescope, the observing strategy, and the signal-processing software must enable efficient removal of foreground emission from the Earth’s atmosphere, which is time-dependent and highly nonlinear in frequency. Here, we present Time-dependent End-to-end Model for Post-process Optimization (TiEMPO) of the DEep Spectroscopic HIgh-redshift MApper (DESHIMA) spectrometer. TiEMPO utilizes a dynamical model of the atmosphere and parameterized models of the astronomical source, the telescope, the instrument, and the detector. The output of TiEMPO is a time stream of sky brightness temperature and detected power, which can be analyzed by standard signal-processing software. We first compare TiEMPO simulations with an on-sky measurement by the wideband DESHIMA spectrometer, and find good agreement in the noise and sensitivity. We then use TiEMPO to simulate the detection of the line emission spectrum of a high-redshift galaxy using the DESHIMA 2.0 spectrometer in development. The TiEMPO model is open source. Its modular and parametrized design enables users to adapt it to optimize the end-to-end performance of spectroscopic and photometric instruments on existing and future telescopes

Original languageEnglish
Article number028005
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems
Volume8
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Keywords

  • astronomy
  • atmosphere
  • kinetic inductance detectors
  • millimeter-wave
  • on-chip spectrometers
  • simulations
  • submillimeter-wave

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