Time-lapse monitoring with virtual seismology: Applications of the Marchenko method for observing time-lapse changes in subsurface reservoirs

Research output: ThesisDissertation (TU Delft)

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Monitoring time-lapse changes inside the subsurface is of great significance to many geotechnical applications, such as storage of gasses in underground geological formations. Minute differences in the seismic wavefield between an initial baseline and a subsequent monitor survey have to be detected in order to observe fluid flow inside subsurface reservoirs. This problem becomes even more challenging when the reservoir is situated underneath a series of complex, highly reflective layers. Such an overburden will generate strong multiple reflections that will interfere with the reflections of the target zone. Ideally, a methodology is designed in order to remove these internal multiples to allow a clear view of the reservoir response for time-lapse analysis. The Marchenko method can redatumthe seismic wavefield to arbitrary depth levels or points in the subsurface, while accounting for all orders of internal multiple reflections. This method, therefore, has great potential to solve some of the time-lapse issues, as it is able to closely examine specific zones of interest in the subsurface without distortions from surrounding layers. Time-lapse studies are often hampered by irregular or imperfect sampling, whereas the Marchenko method relies on densely sampled, co-located sources and receivers. It is, therefore, important that the Marchenko method is able to handle more complex acquisition geometries. This can either be achieved by interpolating the reflection data as a pre-processing step or by correcting for errors inside the Marchenko scheme. Here, point-spread functions are introduced that describe the imperfections in the reflection data. These imperfections distort the focusing and Green’s functions retrieved from the Marchenko method. Next, each iteration of theMarchenko scheme is extended to deblur the imperfect focusing and Green’s functions by multidimensional deconvolution with these point-spread functions. Additionally, a slight modification is required to ensure stability of the new scheme. This new iterative Marchenko scheme is computationally more expensive, but removes all sampling artifacts. Finally, the migrated images of the target zone show significant improvements, when using either the new scheme or interpolation as pre-processing step...
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Delft University of Technology
  • Wapenaar, C.P.A., Supervisor
  • Slob, E.C., Supervisor
Thesis sponsors
Award date28 Sept 2023
Print ISBNs978-94-6366-698-5
Publication statusPublished - 2023


Dit werk heeft financiele steun gekregen van de European Research Council (ERC) onder het Horizon 2020 onderzoeks en innovatie programma van de Europese Unie (toelage nummer: 742703)


  • Marchenko
  • Internal multiples
  • Time-lapse
  • Seismic
  • Reservoir Simulation


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