Timing and Resource-aware Mapping of Quantum Circuits to Superconducting Processors

Lingling Lao, Hans van Someren, Imran Ashraf, Carmen G. Almudever

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
146 Downloads (Pure)


Quantum algorithms need to be compiled to respect the constraints imposed by quantum processors, which is known as the mapping problem. The mapping procedure will result in an increase of the number of gates and of the circuit latency, decreasing the algorithm's success rate. It is crucial to minimize mapping overhead, especially for noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) processors that have relatively short qubit coherence times and high gate error rates. Most of prior mapping algorithms have only considered constraints, such as the primitive gate set and qubit connectivity, but the actual gate duration and the restrictions imposed by the use of shared classical control electronics have not been taken into account. In this article, we present a mapper called Qmap to make quantum circuits executable on scalable processors with the objective of achieving the shortest circuit latency. In particular, we propose an approach to formulate the classical control restrictions as resource constraints in a conventional list scheduler with polynomial complexity. Furthermore, we implement a routing heuristic to cope with the connectivity limitation. This router finds a set of movement operations that minimally extends circuit latency. To analyze the mapping overhead and evaluate the performance of different mappers, we map 56 quantum benchmarks onto a superconducting processor named Surface-17. Compared to a prior mapping strategy that minimizes the number of operations, Qmap can reduce the latency overhead (LtyOH) up to 47.3% and operation overhead up to 28.6%, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)359-371
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Logic gates
  • Parallel processing
  • Program processors
  • Quantum circuit
  • quantum compilation
  • Quantum computing
  • Qubit
  • resource-constrained scheduling
  • routing.
  • Surface treatment


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