Tools in internal and external evaluations

Nihit Goyal*, Michael Howlett

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeChapterScientific


This chapter examines whether and how the difference in the location of evaluators influences the choice of approaches, tools, and procedural issues in policy evaluation. It illustrates the differences in these dimensions of evaluation through a discussion of external and internal evaluation in the case of the Asian Development Bank and multilateral development aid. External evaluators may have a broader perspective and independence, but internal evaluators may have higher-information processing capacity and access to specialized information and records, which external evaluators may not. Impact evaluation is primarily concerned with causal attribution of changes in outcomes to the program or policy. While internal evaluators might be more interested in specific cases, external evaluators often use such techniques to generalize across cases.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Routledge Handbook of Policy Tools
EditorsMichael Howlett
PublisherTaylor and Francis
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9781000622621
ISBN (Print)9780367757748
Publication statusPublished - 2022


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