Towards Credible City Branding Practices: How Do Iran’s Largest Cities Face Ecological Modernization?

Negar Noori, Martin de Jong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
61 Downloads (Pure)


City branding is not only increasingly practiced in cities in established economies, but also among municipal governments in countries, until quite recently, rather closed off from the outside world. One country with a strong drive to engage in urban (re)development in the post-oil era through enhancing its ‘ecological modernization’ is Iran. Megacities in Iran have all begun to venture into making profiles of what they think they are or would like to be. However, some of the adopted city branding strategies lack sophistication. In this article, the authors examine what indicators can be used for evaluating the credibility of city brands and apply these to Iran’s 15 megacities. After offering brief descriptions of the generic features of each of these cities, they map their use of city brand identities and popular city labels related to ecological modernization and analyze the credibility of their city branding practices. Based on their findings, the authors distinguish five types of cities and explain what makes some types more credible in their use of brands than others. Generally speaking, compared to cities in other nations, Iranian cities pay special attention to historical, natural, cultural, and religious aspects.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1354
Number of pages16
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • city branding
  • ecological modernization
  • brand credibility
  • Iran
  • megacities
  • OA-Fund TU Delft


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