Towards developing a new model for inclusive cities in China: The case of Xiong'an New Area

Zhaowen Liu, Martin de Jong, Fen Li, Nikki Brand, Marcel Hertogh, Dong Liang

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Along with unprecedented urbanization in the last few decades, cities have experienced rapid social and economic transformation in China. A major challenge facing urban authorities in the immediate future is how to plan and govern cities such that they can serve as inclusive systems where everyone is enabled and empowered to fully participate in and contribute to socioeconomic life. A first step towards realizing this is to conceptualize an integrated framework that allows analysts and decision-makers to delineate, evaluate, and guide the development of these cities towards inclusiveness. In this study, we conducted a conceptual analysis of urban inclusiveness and then proposed a multidimensional framework for the evaluation of inclusive development. This is followed by the presentation of the case of Xiong'an, for which inclusive development indicators (IDIs) were selected. By comparing the state before the establishment of Xiong'an with its current development progress, and analyzing the area's management structure and policy measures, the inclusive development challenges are identified. Subsequently, suggestions are given on how to direct Xiong'an toward higher levels of inclusiveness, including offering equal access to public services and employment opportunities, preserving environmental health and sustainable use of natural resources through waste recycling, and encouraging public participation in decision-making to bring higher levels of inclusion within reach.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6195
Pages (from-to)1-25
Number of pages25
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Evaluation framework
  • Inclusive city
  • Inclusive urban development
  • Indicator system
  • Xiong'an New Area

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