Tracking Schooling Fish in Three Dimensions: Experiments at the Rotterdam Zoo

K. Muller*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: ThesisDissertation (TU Delft)

36 Downloads (Pure)


This thesis describes methods and first analyses to study the shape and motion of a large school of approximately 2000 Harengula clupeola (false herring) in three-dimensional space. This school of fish was present at the large-scale and publicly accessible ocean aquarium of the Rotterdam zoo, in the Netherlands known as Diergaarde Blijdorp, from spring 2017 to summer 2020.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Delft University of Technology
  • Tam, D.S.W., Supervisor
  • Westerweel, J., Supervisor
  • Hemelrijk, C.K., Supervisor, External person
Thesis sponsors
Award date5 Sept 2023
Print ISBNs978-94-6419-878-2
Publication statusPublished - 2023


This work was supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) with project number 824.15.021.


  • Schooling Fish
  • Three-Dimensional Tracking
  • Collective Behavior
  • Animal Locomotion
  • Biological Fluid-Dynamics
  • Field Experiments


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