Trained innate immunity modulates osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation

N. R. Rahmani*, R. Belluomo, M. C. Kruyt, D. Gawlitta, L. A.B. Joosten, H. Weinans, M. Croes

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Downloads (Pure)


Macrophages are key regulators in bone repair and regeneration. Recent studies have shown that long-term epigenetic changes and metabolic shifts occur during specific immune training of macrophages that affect their functional state, resulting in heightened (trained) or reduced (tolerant) responses upon exposure to a second stimulus. This is known as innate immune memory. Here, we study the impact of macrophages’ memory trait on osteoblast differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) and osteoclast differentiation. An in vitro trained immunity protocol of monocyte-derived macrophages was employed using inactivated Candida albicans and Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) to induce a ‘trained’ state and Pam3CSK4 (PAM) and Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce a ‘tolerance’ state. Macrophages were subsequently cocultured with hMSCs undergoing osteogenic differentiation during either resting (unstimulated) or inflammatory conditions (restimulated with LPS). Alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization, and cytokine levels (TNF, IL-6, oncostatin M and SDF-1α) were measured. In addition, macrophages underwent osteoclast differentiation. Our findings show that trained and tolerized macrophages induced opposing results. Under resting conditions, BCG-trained macrophages enhanced ALP levels (threefold), while under inflammatory conditions this was found in the LPS-tolerized macrophages (fourfold). Coculture of hMSCs with trained macrophages showed mineralization while tolerized macrophages inhibited the process under both resting and inflammatory conditions. While osteoclast differentiation was not affected in trained-macrophages, this ability was significantly loss in tolerized ones. This study further confirms the intricate cross talk between immune cells and bone cells, highlighting the need to consider this interaction in the development of personalized approaches for bone regenerative medicine. Graphical Abstract: (Figure presented.).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1121-1134
Number of pages14
JournalStem Cell Reviews and Reports
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Bone regeneration
  • Innate immune memory
  • Macrophage
  • MSC
  • Osteoimmunology


Dive into the research topics of 'Trained innate immunity modulates osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this