Twenty years of experience with central softening in The Netherlands: Water quality – Environmental benefits – Costs

Jan Hofman, Onno Kramer, Jan Peter van der Hoek, M Nederlof, M Groenendijk

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeChapterScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

Central softening has been utilized by the Dutch water utilities since the late 1970s. It was introduced in the water treatment process as a method to supply water with an optimum water composition to prevent lead and copper release and to prevent excessive scaling. Twenty years of experience show that central softening is beneficial for public health, has significant environmental benefits and that it lowers social costs. Also enhanced consumer comfort is a result of distribution of water with low scaling potential. This paper will describe the water quality improvements and will quantify the benefits realized in practice.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the International Symposium on Health Aspects of Calcium and Magnesium in Drinking Water
Subtitle of host publicationWashington, USA
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 2006
Externally publishedYes
Eventat International Symposium on Health Aspects of Calcium and Magnesium in Drinking Water - International Life Sciences, Institute, Washington, United States
Duration: 24 Apr 200626 Apr 2006

Conference

Conferenceat International Symposium on Health Aspects of Calcium and Magnesium in Drinking Water
CountryUnited States
CityWashington
Period24/04/0626/04/06

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