Two-phase flow metering of maldistribution inside a header by means of venturi flowmeter solely

A. Lecardonnel*, C. De Servi, P. Colonna, D. Laboureur

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


In evaporators, the distribution of the liquid and vapor phases among the channels is a convoluted problem, depending on a wide range of parameters. However, maldistribution causes important losses of performance. Due to their complexity, the accurate modeling of such two-phase flows is difficult to handle. Hence, experimental studies are still of great importance to help the understanding of maldistribution behaviors inside evaporators. Most of the experimental investigations of two-phase flow distribution are measuring the liquid and vapor quantities in the channels through a phase separation process, increasing the test duration and complexity. As a consequence, the number of parameters investigated is usually limited. Therefore, a new inline instrumentation method would allow for a more complete study by simplifying the measurement process. In the present work, an isothermal air/water mixture was used as fluid. The distribution of the two phases in eight channels of 10-mm I.D. connected to a simplified header was investigated. The inlet mass flow rates considered ranged from 0 to 0.025 kg/s for the water, and from 0 to 0.022 kg/s for the air. Consequently, qualities x up to 0.7 and void fractions ® up to 0.9 were reached. All the tests were carried at a pressure condition of 7 bar to reach a liquid to vapor density ratio similar to what is encountered for traditional refrigerant. Finally, to allow a continuous measurement process, the mass flow rates in each of the 10-mm I.D. channel were measured using a flowmeter calibrated on a separate line. Since no void fraction meter was coupled, a new iterative methodology, based on the Venturi pressure drops measurement solely, was developed and is proposed here. It proved to successfully predict the vapor and liquid phase flow rates in each channel.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97-114
Number of pages18
JournalMultiphase Science and Technology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2024

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


This work has been performed in the framework of the PANTTHER Project. This project has received funding from the Clean Sky2 Joint Undertaking (JU) (Grant Agreement No. 886698). The JU receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program and the Clean Sky 2 JU members other than the Union.


  • evaporators
  • experimental
  • heat exchanger
  • liquid-gas two-phase flow
  • maldistribution
  • metering instrumentation
  • Venturi


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