Ultra-precision engineering in lithographic exposure equipment for the semiconductor industry

RH Munnig Schmidt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

89 Citations (Scopus)


The developments in lithographic tools for the production of an integrated circuit (IC) are ruled by 'Moore's Law': the density of components on an IC doubles in about every two years. The corresponding size reduction of the smallest detail in an IC entails several technological breakthroughs. The wafer scanner, the exposure system that defines those details, is the determining factor in these developments. This review deals with those aspects of the positioning systems inside these wafer scanners that enable the extension of Moore's Law into the future. The design of these systems is increasingly difficult because of the accuracy levels in the sub-nanometre range coupled with motion velocities of several metres per second. In addition to the use of feedback control for the reduction of errors, high-precision model-based feed-forward control is required with an almost ideally reproducible motion-system behaviour and a strict limitation of random disturbing events. The full mastering of this behaviour even includes material drift on an atomic scale and is decisive for the future success of these machines. Keywords: lithography; precision positioning; mechatronics; metrology; stability; control
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3950-3972
Number of pages23
JournalRoyal Society of London. Philosophical Transactions A. Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
Issue number2012
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • academic journal papers
  • CWTS JFIS < 0.75


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