Ultra-thin corrugated metamaterial film as large-area transmission dynode

H. W. Chan*, V. Prodanović, A. M.M.G. Theulings, T. ten Bruggencate, C. W. Hagen, P. M. Sarro, H. V.D. Graaf

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Large-area transmission dynodes were fabricated by depositing an ultra-thin continuous film on a silicon wafer with a 3-dimensional pattern. After removing the silicon, a corrugated membrane with enhanced mechanical properties was formed. Mechanical metamaterials, such as this corrugated membrane, are engineered to improve its strength and robustness, which allows it to span a larger surface in comparison to flat membranes while the film thickness remains constant. The ultra-thin film consists of three layers (Al2O3/TiN/Al2O3) and is deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The encapsulated TiN layer provides in-plane conductivity, which is needed to sustain secondary electron emission. Two types of corrugated membranes were fabricated: a hexagonal honeycomb and an octagonal pattern. The latter was designed to match the square pitch of a CMOS pixel chip. The transmission secondary electron yield was determined with a collector-based method using a scanning electron microscope. The highest transmission electron yield was measured on a membrane with an octagonal pattern. A yield of 2.15 was achieved for 3.15 keV incident electrons for an Al2O3/TiN/Al2O3 tri-layer film with layer thicknesses of 10/5/15 nm. The variation in yield across the surface of the corrugated membrane was determined by constructing a yield map. The active surface for transmission secondary electron emission is near 100%, i.e. a primary electron generates transmission secondary electrons regardless of the point of impact on the corrugated membrane.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberP09027
Number of pages24
JournalJournal of Instrumentation
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Avalanche-induced secondary effects
  • Electron multipliers (vacuum)
  • Secondary electron emitters and dynodes and their production


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