Ultra-thin corrugated metamaterial film as large-area transmission dynode

H. W. Chan*, V. Prodanović, A. M.M.G. Theulings, T. ten Bruggencate, C. W. Hagen, P. M. Sarro, H. V.D. Graaf

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
11 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Large-area transmission dynodes were fabricated by depositing an ultra-thin continuous film on a silicon wafer with a 3-dimensional pattern. After removing the silicon, a corrugated membrane with enhanced mechanical properties was formed. Mechanical metamaterials, such as this corrugated membrane, are engineered to improve its strength and robustness, which allows it to span a larger surface in comparison to flat membranes while the film thickness remains constant. The ultra-thin film consists of three layers (Al2O3/TiN/Al2O3) and is deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The encapsulated TiN layer provides in-plane conductivity, which is needed to sustain secondary electron emission. Two types of corrugated membranes were fabricated: a hexagonal honeycomb and an octagonal pattern. The latter was designed to match the square pitch of a CMOS pixel chip. The transmission secondary electron yield was determined with a collector-based method using a scanning electron microscope. The highest transmission electron yield was measured on a membrane with an octagonal pattern. A yield of 2.15 was achieved for 3.15 keV incident electrons for an Al2O3/TiN/Al2O3 tri-layer film with layer thicknesses of 10/5/15 nm. The variation in yield across the surface of the corrugated membrane was determined by constructing a yield map. The active surface for transmission secondary electron emission is near 100%, i.e. a primary electron generates transmission secondary electrons regardless of the point of impact on the corrugated membrane.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberP09027
Number of pages24
JournalJournal of Instrumentation
Volume17
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.

Keywords

  • Avalanche-induced secondary effects
  • Electron multipliers (vacuum)
  • Secondary electron emitters and dynodes and their production

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