Under Pandemic: Assessment of Ventilation in Secondary Schools in The Netherlands

Er Ding*, D. Zhang, P.M. Bluyssen

*Corresponding author for this work

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To investigate the sufficiency of ventilation during the COVID-19 pandemic for school children, a field study was conducted in 37 classrooms of 11 Dutch secondary schools between October 2020 and June 2021. All the classrooms were visited twice, before and after a three-month national lockdown, when different measures against COVID-19 were taken by the schools. For each visit, both CO2 concentrations and air temperature were measured during school hours, and detailed information on building/classroom characteristics, occupancy, and COVID-19 measures was collected. Results show that before the lockdown, CO2 concentrations in most classrooms exceeded the threshold levels of the Dutch Fresh Schools guidelines. The significantly lower CO2 concentrations measured after the lockdown, however, were mainly due to the decreased occupancy. Moreover, with windows and doors always being opened on purpose, the performance of different ventilation regimes could not be compared, while such behaviour may also lead to thermal discomfort for school children.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages2
Publication statusPublished - 2022
EventIndoor Air 2022: 17th International Conference of the International Society of Indoor Air Quality & Climate - University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
Duration: 12 Jun 202216 Jun 2022


ConferenceIndoor Air 2022
Internet address

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Classrooms
  • CO2 concentration
  • Children
  • COVID-19


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