Understanding the Aggregate Flexibility of Thermostatically Controlled Loads

Vincenzo Trovato, Simon Tindemans, Goran Strbac

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) are an attractive source of responsive demand. This paper aims to provides a better understanding of the relation between thermal properties of TCLs and their suitability to provide energy arbitrage and frequency services. An approximate analysis on the basis of dimensionless parameters is used to visualise the relative abilities of eight classes of TCLs. The results are compared to those obtained from a formal optimisation approach, in the context of a GB case study. Additional studies are performed to investigate the impact of increasingly flexible frequency services and physical variations of TCL thermal models (thermal conductance and temperature deadband).

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2017 IEEE Manchester PowerTech, Powertech 2017
Place of PublicationPiscataway, NJ
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-5090-4237-1
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jul 2017
Externally publishedYes
Event12th IEEE PES PowerTech Manchester 2017 Conference: Towards and Beyond Sustainable Energy Systems - Manchester, United Kingdom
Duration: 18 Jun 201722 Jun 2017
Conference number: 12


Conference12th IEEE PES PowerTech Manchester 2017 Conference
Abbreviated titleIEEE PowerTech Manchester 2017
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom


  • demand side response
  • energy arbitrage
  • energy storage
  • frequency control
  • thermostatically controlled load


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