Binary codes have often been deployed to facilitate large-scale retrieval tasks, but not that often for image compression. In this paper, we propose a unified framework, BGAN+, that restricts the input noise variable of generative adversarial networks to be binary and conditioned on the features of each input image, and simultaneously learns two binary representations per image: one for image retrieval and the other serving as image compression. Compared to related methods that attempt to learn a single binary code serving both purposes, we demonstrate that choosing for two codes leads to more effective representations due to less concessions needed when balancing the requirements. The added value of using a unified framework compared to two separate frameworks lies in the synergy in data representation that is beneficial for both learning processes. When devising this framework, we also address another challenge in learning binary codes, namely that of learning supervision. While the most striking successes in image retrieval using binary codes have mostly involved discriminative models requiring labels, the proposed BGAN+ framework learns the binary codes in an unsupervised fashion, yet more effectively than the state-of-the-art supervised approaches. The proposed BGAN+ framework is evaluated on three benchmark datasets for image retrieval and two datasets on image compression. The experimental results show that BGAN+ outperforms the existing retrieval methods with significant margins and achieves promising performance for image compression, especially for low bit rates.
Bibliographical noteAccepted author manuscript
- Binary codes
- Generative adversarial network
- Image compression
- Image retrieval