The uptake mechanism of heavy metal ions in layered double hydroxides (LDHs) is investigated in this paper via solid-solution exchange experiments and first principle study. The uptake capacities of C-LDHs for heavy metal ions from solutions are experimentally investigated and the structures of LDHs doped with various heavy metal ions are revealed. The doped structures of LDHs are further re-established with first principle calculations. The results show that Cu2+ or Cr3+ ions are immobilized in the form of isomorphic substitution for Mg2+ and Al3+ in the plate of the layered structure, respectively, during reconstruction of calcined LDHs, forming a non-stoichiometric structure. The structure of the Cu2+ doped LDHs is identified as [Mg2+ (1−x)(1−z)Cu2+ (1−x)zAl3+ x(OH)2] An− x/n·yH2O, where z is the molar ratio of Cu2+ to Mg2+. The structure of Cr3+ doped LDHs is identified as [Mg2+ 1−x Cr3+ xzAl3+ x(1−z)(OH)2] An− (x+z)/n·yH2O, where z is the molar ratio of Cr3+ to Al3+. The Cu2+ or Cr3+ ions in the hardened cement paste modified with calcined Mg-Al LDHs as immobilizing admixture can be efficiently removed from the pore solution and chemically stabilized in the structure of LDHs.
Bibliographical noteAccepted author manuscript
- First principle calculation
- Heavy metal ions
- Layered double hydroxides
- Solid state NMR