Use of reclaimed water for unreinforced concrete block production for the self-construction of houses

N. J. Gulamussen*, A. M. Arsénio, N. P. Matsinhe, R. S. Manjate, L. C. Rietveld

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
85 Downloads (Pure)


Experiments were conducted to evaluate the possibilities of using treated wastewater for the production of unreinforced concrete blocks. Compressive strength, water absorption and morphology tests of concrete blocks, produced from different makeups of mixing water, drinking water, drinking water spiked with ammonium and phosphate, and the effluent of the city’s wastewater treatment plant, were evaluated. Results showed that the compressive strength of blocks manufactured using treated wastewater was as high as of the blocks produced using drinking water. Ammonium, phosphate and chlorine were found not to have a negative effect on the strength of the blocks. Water absorption tests confirmed the results of the compressive strength, as lower humidity was found in cases of higher strength. In the process of cement hydration, crystals of calcium silicate and calcium hydroxide were observed by morphology tests. From the variability in the results, it could be concluded that the quality of the mixing water was not the only factor that influenced the strength of the unreinforced concrete blocks. The observed differences in strength could, for example, also be attributed to the manufacturing process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)690-704
Number of pages15
JournalWater Reuse
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Concrete
  • Construction
  • Industry
  • Strength
  • Wastewater
  • Water reclamation


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