User acceptance of the eSOS® smart toilet in a temporary settlement in the Philippines

Fiona Zakaria*, Yoke Pean Thye, Christine M. Hooijmans, Hector A. Garcia, Andrew D. Spiegel, Damir Brdjanovic

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


An eSOS (emergency Sanitation Operation System) Smart Toilet experimental prototype, aimed at improving the provision of safe sanitation in emergency settings, was field tested in a temporary settlement in Tacloban City, Philippines. The design, usage, and user acceptance of the toilet were all evaluated. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through interviews and questionnaires, supported by the research-team’s observations. The survey results indicated that 98% of users (both first-time users and those who tried it a few times) intended to use the toilet again. There were more features that the users liked than disliked. The in-built water supply and user-operated smart toilet features were liked, but the bad smell was disliked. User-operated smart features were an important factor in user acceptance although they were not the main incentives. Key recommendations are to improve the toilet’s design to address the odor and cleanliness issues, make handwashing more convenient, and lower the height of the toilet bowl.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)832-847
Number of pages16
JournalWater Practice and Technology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017


  • Culture
  • Experimental toilet
  • Field test
  • User experience


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