Using ChatGPT for human–computer interaction research: a primer

W. Tabone*, J.C.F. de Winter

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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ChatGPT could serve as a tool for text analysis within the field of Human–Computer Interaction, though its validity requires investigation. This study applied ChatGPT to: (1) textbox questionnaire responses on nine augmented-reality interfaces, (2) interview data from participants who experienced these interfaces in a virtual simulator, and (3) transcribed think-aloud data of participants who viewed a real painting and its replica. Using a hierarchical approach, ChatGPT produced scores or summaries of text batches, which were then aggregated. Results showed that (1) ChatGPT generated sentiment scores of the interfaces that correlated extremely strongly (r > 0.99) with human rating scale outcomes and with a rule-based sentiment analysis method (criterion validity). Additionally, (2) by inputting automatically transcribed interviews to ChatGPT, it provided meaningful meta-summaries of the qualities of the interfaces (face validity). One meta-summary analysed in depth was found to have substantial but imperfect overlap with a content analysis conducted by an independent researcher (criterion validity). Finally, (3) ChatGPT's summary of the think-aloud data highlighted subtle differences between the real painting and the replica (face validity), a distinction corresponding with a keyword analysis (criterion validity). In conclusion, our research indicates that, with appropriate precautions, ChatGPT can be used as a valid tool for analysing text data.
Original languageEnglish
Article number231053
Number of pages21
JournalRoyal Society Open Science
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • application programming interface (API)
  • reproducibility
  • prompt engineering
  • human-subject research


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